Lee Smolin & Universal Darwinism



Lee Smolin

Lee Smolin's work has been at the forefront in explaining cosmological design as created by Darwinian processes.

Lee's research interests includes quantum gravity, which is the unification of Einstein's general theory of relativity with quantum theory. He is a leading researcher with the Loop Quantum Gravity approach to solving this primary problem in theoretical Physics. He also works on the foundations of quantum mechanics, cosmology, elementary particle physics, astrophysics and theoretical biology.

Born in New York City, Lee was educated at Hampshire College and Harvard University. He was formerly a professor at Yale, Syracuse and Penn State Universities and held postdoctoral positions at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, the Institute for Theoretical Physics, Santa Barbara and the Enrico Fermi Institute, the University of Chicago. He has been a visiting professor at Imperial College London and has held various visiting positions at Oxford and Cambridge Universities and the Universities of Rome and Trento, and SISSA, in Italy.

In 1992 he first introduced his theory of cosmological natural selection with the paper Did the universe evolve?

Lee's book The Life of the Cosmos was the first to propose a Darwinian mechanism to explain design found in cosmology.

His 2004 paper Scientific Alternatives to the Anthropic Principal more fully develops his theory of Cosmological Natural Selection.

His 2012 paper A perspective on the landscape problem provides further theoretical support for cosmological natural selection as well as a compelling argument for the evolution of physical law via a Darwinian process.


There is only one mode of explanation I know of, developed by science, to explain why a system has parameters that lead to much more complexity than typical values of those parameters. This is natural selection.

Lee Smolin